Jack Dempsey Cichlids aren’t that hard to take care of. They have many things going for them. Jack Dempsey fish are hardy, low-maintenance, tough fish. The characteristic iridescent scales are a pleasure to look at in fish tanks. All sorts of colors, from light blue to a rich gold.
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Jack Dempsey Cichlid Care, Tank Mates, Fully Grown
Name: Jack Dempsey Cichlid
Scientific Name: Rocio octofasciata (cichlasoma octofasciatum), (Parapetenia octofasciata), (Archocentrus octofasciatus)
Size Of The Fish: Medium
Temperament: Aggressive – Territorial
Aquarium Size Required: Medium
Where It Swims: Middle To Bottom Area
Care Difficulty Rating: Easy
The Jack Dempsey Cichlid was named after a professional boxer.
He was from the US, and he wasn’t just any boxer. From 1919 to 1926, (7 years), he reigned as the World Heavyweight Champion!
This cichlid has robust facial features and is an aggressive fish. Despite the reputation for aggressiveness, they aren’t the most out of all the cichlids.
The story behind the scientific name (Rocio octofasciata) is as interesting. The genus name (Rocio) was named after the discoverer’s wife.
Rocio in Spanish means ‘morning dew’. This is likely a reference to the ‘spots’ on the body of the Jack Dempsey.
The other part of the scientific name (octofasciata, the name of the individual freshwater fish). Supposedly comes from the Latin words “octo” (meaning eight) and “fascia” (meaning stripe or belt).
Putting those two together, you get “eight striped.”
They hail from various countries throughout Central America. Including Southern Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, and Belize, where they’re more commonly known as the Mexican Blue Frontosa.
Whether accidentally or on purpose, the Jack Dempsey fish has been introduced to North America, specfically the United States, Thailand, and Australia.
They’re a freshwater fish, but very adaptable. Their usual habitats include water bodies with slow water movements. Rivers, streams, and drainage ditches!
Also in canals with sandy or muddy bottoms, and waters with warm and murky swamp areas.
They’re not listed on the IUCN Red List, so they’re not threatened.
Readily available in pet stores and for purchase online, usually in a purchase size of 1″ to 2″ long.
These aren’t the most colorful freshwater fish, though they are some of the more colorful central american cichlids. But they make up for it with their unique ‘spots’ and sparkling scales in a variety of colors.
Here is how to sex a Jack Dempsey cichlid.
Markings and Colors: The males are brighter in color and patterns than females. The male sometimes has a black, round spot at the base of the tail, and the center of the body.
In contrast, the female can have a small one on the lower edge of each gill cover and one on the dorsal fin. Females always have fewer spots than the male.
The males also have more sparkly scales and red edging around their anal and dorsal fins.
A male has blue spots directly back from the eyes, and no spots near their mouth. A female has blue markings across the whole cheek.
Size and Shape: The males are bigger than the females with a longer and pointier dorsal fin. They also have a bigger head and a more defined and square jawline.
Behavior: During the breeding season, the behavior, colorations, and attitudes of the fish change. Males become much brighter and their turquoise flecks become more vibrant.
They also become much more aggressive and territorial than usual.
Females sometimes change color too. When she is feeling frisky, sometimes she becomes very dark. The blue specks on her gills and jaw become brighter.
(Even if after you’ve followed all the pointers listed above, and you still can’t tell, ask your local vet or expert.)
When the fish are born, and a juvenile, their coloration is dull. They don’t have any of the spots or sparkly scales Jack Dempsey fish are known for.
The colors develop slowly, taking a year or more to appear. When the fish matures, it becomes vibrant.
They have purple-gray skin, with iridescent scales all over. These come in the colors of light green, blue, and gold, varying in their shades.
There are two grey-black bars on their face. These extend from the top of the head to the eyes and are positioned between the eyes. They also have dark bars going vertically across the body.
Their colors change when they age. If they get stressed, they become paler, and their spots and markings are less vibrant. Of course, the male’s colors become brighter during the breeding season.
The Jack Dempsey is a medium-to-large fish, which grows to a maximum of an adult size of 10″, but the range is 8-10″, (20-25 cm). They are smaller in the wild than they are in the home aquarium
They have a lifespan of 10-15 years.
It starts with the breeding season. In the wild, it begins when the temperatures get warmer.
If you are planning to breed them, it’s best to have several fish. Six is a good starter. You’re likely to get more couples.
When the breeding starts, it can be a risky time for other fish in the tank. Watch the behavior of the Jack Dempsey Cichlids, especially the males. If they’re too aggressive, step in.
The males’ colors brighten, and their behavior becomes territorial. This is the time when they begin to pair off. Make sure the pair isn’t bothering the fish in the aquarium. If they are, you need to separate the couple from the others.
If you have a separate tank set up for breeding, put the breeding pair in there. If you don’t, place a divider in the tank.
Jack Dempsey fish are monogamous, and they mate for life.
Have a clean, flat surface for the fish to spawn and lay their eggs on. Flat rocks, upturned flowerpots, or something similar.
They prefer an enclosed spot.
The process of breeding goes like this. The female lays her eggs on the chosen spot. The male fertilizes the eggs after. The parents dig a pit around the area to hide the eggs from sight.
(It’s essential you don’t have plants near they could accidentally dig up!)
The clutch size depends on the female. On average, the female lays 500-800 eggs. Both parents guard the eggs protectively. The male gets even more aggressive at this point.
The eggs take three-six days to hatch. They’re looked after by the parents until they can move by themselves and become free swimming. This usually takes another four days.
By this time, they can eat.
Here are a few foods to consider. Powdered fish food, newly-hatched brine shrimp, and food designed for Cichlid fry. When they develop into juveniles, you can feed them the same food you give your adults.
Breeding Problems And Solutions
Jack Dempseys are easy to breed, but a few problems can arise.
#1 When the fry hatch, the parents split the jobs. The male looks after the territory, keeping everyone safe. The female tends to the unhatched eggs, the larvae and juveniles.
If the male neglects his responsibility or is too excited about it, this may infuriate the female. Usually, nothing happens. However, the parents may eat the eggs and larvae!
If this shows signs of happening, remove the male from.
#2 The female can lay up to 800 eggs. The aquarium may be too small to hold them all. If she shows signs of being overwhelmed, step in.
It may seem cruel, but it’s the best thing you can do. Take 50% to 70% of the fry out of the tank. You can use them as live food for other fish. This leaves the female to concentrate on the remaining hatchlings.
Despite all this, Jack Dempsey Cichlids are attentive parents. They look after their offspring well.
Looking After Your Jack Dempsey Cichlids
Plan your tank carefully to avoid problems. They are a medium-sized fish. A fifty-five gallon tank size is a good starting point, as it gives them plenty of space.
The bigger the area, the less likely they are to be aggressive.
However, if you have lots of fish in a community tank, go with a bigger tank size, something like a 100 gallon aquarium. Many aquarists recommend the dimensions of 4 ft, or if you can manage it, 5 ft.
Rocks, both flat and those that form caves and hiding places are integral to your tank. Make sure you place the stones first. Jack Dempsey Cichlids dig into the substrate.
If you like it to look natural, decorate it with bogwood.
With plants, you need tough, hardy ones that either grows on the bottom or are floating. Try not to have too many. The ideal ones are Anubias or the Java Fern.
Place the rocks and ground decor in a way that breaks up the aquarium into territories. Also, have vertical structures, so they have something to hide behind.
An important note. When you first buy them, they’re quite shy, awkward, and afraid of their new surroundings.
It’s best to introduce them to their tank mates right from the start.
When you introduce them, make sure the lighting isn’t too bright, and there are places for them to hide.
Tank Conditions & Water Conditions
Here are some guidelines of ideal water parameters.
Keep the aquarium water clean. It should have no nitrite or ammonia, so make sure to do regular water changes to prevent buildup.
You can allow some nitrate, but no larger than 40mg in a liter. You can achieve this with the help of a strong, quality biofilter.
Be sure the water is free of harmful nitrogen compounds.
Keep your lighting subdued. They don’t like bright lights.
They’re sensitive to pH instability and pollutants in the water. Restock 15-20% of the water every two weeks.
When you do the water changes, make sure to use a gravel cleaner. This removes the decomposing organic matter.
The recommended temperature range is 72–86 °F, (22–30 °C), with the best water temperature being 73-76 °F, (23-26 °C).
PH And Hardness
The pH: 6-7; the water hardness, 9-20 dGH.
Suitable Tank Mates
The smaller the tank, the more fish, the more the Jack Dempsey fish will feel cramped. In turn, it’s likely to be more aggressive. If you’re planning on tank mates, make sure you have a big tank.
Second, is how many Jack Dempsey Cichlids you are planning to keep? They work best with other fish in groups. If you have a pair for breeding, don’t have tank mates.
Third, is the fish that you choose for tank mates. They should be larger and have a peaceful/non-aggressive temperament, like community fish.
When they are juveniles, they get along well with other South American Cichlids. However, they become intolerant of these fish when they age. If any problems arise, move them into a separate tank.
Other Jack Dempseys Cichlids. This one’s a no-brainer. These fish are comfortable with their species.
Goldfish. The relationship works quite well.
Choose a big goldfish and a ‘common’ one, not a ‘fancy’ one. Common goldfish, for example, a koi, get to 14″, so they’re big fish.
Other Types Of Cichlids. Recommended species would be Firemouth Cichlids, Acaras Cichlids, Green Terrors, and Oscars.
Midas Cichlids. Similar in temperment and personality,
Kissing Fish. Avoid if you are a beginner, they are an excellent choice. These are peaceful fish, and they eat nearly the same food Jack Dempseys do.
Banded Corydora, also known as bearded catfish, reach around 4″ inches in length. This, along with its temperament and ease of feeding, makes it a good choice if you’re a beginner.
Catfish are a good idea. They’re large and mind their own business.
Their diet is omnivorous. In the wild, they eat crustaceans, other fish, insects, worms, and plant matter.
These fish will thrive if fed a carefully chosen and varied diet. If you do this, it has even been known to increase their lifespan.
Pellets And Flake Foods. These are great. They don’t seem to mind this kind of food and will accept it happily. Make sure it’s designed for Cichlids and is of high quality.
Live Foods, such as bloodworm, tubifex, and brine shrimp, should often be offered. They should be a staple in the diet of your fish.
Don’t Forget Plant Material! Finely chopped, foods like blowball leaves, cabbage, and lettuce should be sufficient.
Other Options To Consider
Frozen Food. If you don’t have access to live foods, or are out of your budget range, they’re a good option. Frozen versions of the live feed mentioned above are good.
Milled Seafood. Another excellent choice. Prepare it by thawing.
Things To Avoid
Warm-Blooded Meat isn’t good for them. By ‘warm-blooded,’ I mean meat such as beef and chicken. This is because the amounts and types of proteins in these meats aren’t good for them.
They can’t digest it properly, so it can make them quite sick.
(FYI: Many people talk about offering beef heart to Jack Dempsey Cichlids, but this isn’t a good idea. Beef heart is high in proteins, so should only be provided for a treat.)
Overfeeding. Only feed them once a day.
Popular Types Of Jack Dempsey Cichlids
Though the Jack Dempsey Cichlid is one species, some breeders and other aquarists have developed different Jack Dempsey Cichlids. Ones that don’t have the usual coloration that the regular fish does.
They have been bred to have vibrant and wildly colorful.
Some of the colorations that are available in the market are Gold, & Electric Blue.
The most common one is called the Electric Blue Jack Dempsey Cichlid. It’s like the original fish. But with vibrant blue for its skin color, smaller, and less aggressive.
It has such a reputation, after all, it was named after a boxer. However, this seemingly rough and ready fish has a secret.
Sure, it is aggressive. However, its beautiful colors, ease of breeding, and maintenance. That’s why its so popular in home aquariums.
Is there something missing from this article, or do you have a question? Let me know in a comment below.